AM in the time of COVID-19AM IndustryMedical AM

[Updating] Italian hospital saves Covid-19 patients lives by 3D printing valves for reanimation devices

The supply chain was broken, people and 3D printing rose to the occasion

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Many have been asking what the implications of the current COVID-19 pandemic are going to be on additive manufacturing as an industry. The relationship between coronavirus and 3D printing is not entirely clear, mostly because we are very far from understanding what the long, medium and even short terms implications of the pandemic are going to be on global supply chains.

Additive manufacturing may be able to play a role in helping to support industrial supply chains that are affected by limitations on traditional production and imports. One thing is for sure though: 3D printing can have an immediate beneficial effect when the supply chain is completely broken. That was, fortunately, the case when a Northern Italian hospital needed a replacement valve for a reanimation device and the supplier had run out with no way to get more in a short time.

The original valve (on the left) and its 3D printed twin.

One of the biggest immediate problems that coronavirus is causing is the massive number of people who require intensive care and oxygenation in order to live through the infection long enough for their antibodies to fight it. This means that the only way to save lives at this point – beyond prevention – is to have as many working reanimation machines as possible. And when they break down, maybe 3D printing can help.

Massimo Temporelli, founder of The FabLab in Milan and a very active and popular promoter of Industry 4.0 and 3D printing in Italy, reported early on Friday 13th that he was contacted by Nunzia Vallini, editor of the Giornale di Brescia, with whom he has been collaborating for several years for the dissemination of Industry 4.0 culture in schools.

She explained that the hospital in Brescia (near one of the hardest-hit regions for coronavirus infections) urgently needed valves (in the photo) for an intensive care device and that the supplier could not provide them in a short time. Running out of the valves would have been dramatic and some people might have lost their lives. So she asked if it would be possible to 3D print them.

After several phone calls to fablabs and companies in Milan and Brescia and then, fortunately, a company in the area, Isinnova, responded to this call for help through its Founder & CEO Cristian Fracassi, who brought a 3D printer directly to the hospital and, in just a few hours, redesigned and then produced the missing piece.

On the evening of Saturday 14th (the next day) Massimo reported that “the system works”. At the time of writing, 10 patients are accompanied in breathing by a machine that uses a 3D printed valve. As the virus inevitably continues to spread worldwide and breaks supply chains, 3D printers – through people’s ingenuity and design abilities – can definitely lend a helping hand. Or valve, or protective gear, or masks, or anything you will need and can’t get from your usual supplier.

[Update 15-3-2020]

After the first valves were 3D printed using a filament extrusion system, on location at the hospital, more valves were later 3D printed by another local firm, Lonati SpA, using a polymer laser powder bed fusion process (photo below) and a custom polyamide-based material.

[Update 16-3-20]

So many – see comments below – have reached out to offer help in producing these parts, both locally and globally. As far as 3dpbm understands, the model for the valve remains covered by copyright and patents. Hospitals do have a right to produce these parts in an emergency (as in this case) but, in order to legally obtain a 3D printable STL file, the hospital that requires the parts needs to present an official request and the patient usually needs to give consent (this procedure varies according to local regulations). We will continue to update this article as new information becomes available.

[Update 16-3-2020]

The device in question is a Venturi valve, used for a Venturi Oxygen mask. These are low-flow masks that use the Bernoulli principle to entrain room air when pure oxygen is delivered through a small orifice, resulting in a large total flow at predictable FIO2.

[Update 17-3-2020]

In light of the overwhelming response to this topic and offers to help that we have received, we have created an online Emergency AM Forum as a way to help hospitals, AM companies and makers share ideas and unite to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. You can register to create a new topic. Healthcare professionals will be able to use the search by radius function on the right-hand side to find local makers, companies and services that can help. More topics will be added daily.

[Update 18-3-2020]

We have received hundreds of requests for the venturi valve STL file. In this video, Cristian Percassi explains (in Italian) why the STL file has not been shared at this time. The first key reason is that – for the time being – only one hospital had a requirement for about 100 venturi valves and the requirement was fully satisfied with the first production batch. Another hospital may now have a similar need and many hospitals around the world may follow. The correct course of action – Percassi explained – is to always check with the official manufacturer first. If the valves are not available, only in case of a confirmed emergency is it possible to contact a 3D printing service provider and produce a replica. However, a high-end powder bed fusion machine is needed to produce parts that have the necessary accuracy and complexity. Percassi also revealed that, contrary to certain reports, they were never threatened with a lawsuit.

[Update 19-3-2020]

Since the need emerged for venturi valves in ventilators for hospitals around the world dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic, several designers and engineers have started working on creating 3D printable models for them. While there are both copyright issues and medical issues that need to be taken into account when 3D printing any medical product, and a critical one such as a venturi valve, in particular, this case has shown that a life and death situation could warrant using a 3D printable replica. GrabCAD user Filip Kober has now created a model and has made it available for free on the 3D model network. Together with our partners at Shapemode, we have 3D printed it using high accuracy stereolithography technology (see photo below) and the device seems to have proper dimensional accuracy. You can find links to this and all other 3D printable files for useful medical devices in this dedicated section of the Forum. If you use it, please post comments and suggestions for other users.

[Update 21-3-2020]

The Isinnova team now developed and successfully tested a 3D printed adapter to turn a snorkeling mask into a non-invasive ventilator for COVID-19 patients. It’s an idea that anyone can 3D print using just about any type of 3D printer—and could help to address the possible shortage of hospital C-PAP masks for sub-intensive oxygen therapy, which is emerging as a concrete problem linked to the spread of COVID-19: an emergency ventilator mask, produced by adjusting a commercially available snorkeling mask. Download the file here.

[Update 22-3-2020]

A physics simulation was released showing oxygen flow in Revision 4 of Filip Kober’s Venturi’s life-saving nozzle for ventilators in COVID-19 treatment.

Please add/discuss anything useful related to this in the dedicated forum.

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Davide Sher

Since 2002, Davide has built up extensive experience as a technology journalist, market analyst and consultant for the additive manufacturing industry. Born in Milan, Italy, he spent 12 years in the United States, where he completed his studies at SUNY USB. As a journalist covering the tech and videogame industry for over 10 years, he began covering the AM industry in 2013, first as an international journalist and subsequently as a market analyst, focusing on the additive manufacturing industry and relative vertical markets. In 2016 he co-founded London-based VoxelMatters. Today the company publishes the leading news and insights websites and, as well as VoxelMatters Directory, the largest global directory of companies in the additive manufacturing industry.

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  1. Screw this company’s stupid copyright, and release the STL’s! The company cant keep up we can and we can do it locally so no shipping times! I’m printing reusable “Montana masks” at the moment to give to first responders etc, and will print these for local hospitals if they need them. I have 3 printers running and 1 in the box to be asembled at this point. Screw government, screw companies, just save lifes.

  2. We can help produce parts.

    After reading the LATEST updates which included the following:
    1) Cristian et. al. were never in threat of a lawsuit
    2) They did have to create the STL part file from scratch
    3) A high-end powder resin fusion machine is required to produce this part

    I would like to offer our services to produce parts. We can at this time only produce FFF/Extruded parts on our machines.


  3. If someone can send me one (UK) I can get it scanned, model it up and share the file. Can even perhaps get a drawing made

  4. Does anyone have rough measurements of such a thing? I have modelled one so it will be easier to print. However I have no idea what exact measurements would actually work.
    It’s pretty hard to get an original to take measurements of.

  5. Hey all
    I am the CEO of a small danish startup that builds laboratory automation products for the biotech industry. We have two 3D printers and skilled staff. In addition we have contacts that have 10-15 3D printers available, if necessary. We are located in Copenhagen.
    If possible we would love to help print the these parts if we can get the STL file.
    We want to help as much as possible.
    Please contact me if you are a healthcare professional or person in Denmark that can help or needs help.

  6. Me parece desagradable de parte de utds q no dejen el archivo STL al público , se supone q lo hicieron para ayudar a disminuir las muertes , no creen q Miles de personas q tenemos impresoras 3d podríamos ayudar tambien, yo tengo 2 impresoras de PLA Y 1 DE Resina

  7. If high concentrations of O2 are flowing through this, the type of plastic might be important. You don’t want static electricity causing a spark and starting a fire. The OEM would have considered this sort of thing.

  8. Hello
    I’m linving in little island in french caraibeen, we have problem to have some safety things.
    I have a 3D printing company, please send us the stl file that can save some life

  9. I work in a hospital and there’s a very real chance I may have to start printing these. Anybody find that stl? I saw the official request thing but honestly have no idea who I’d even need to talk to in order to do that official request.

  10. I’m graphic artist an i own a 3dprinter (prusa mk3s), if i can help in any way, it will be my pleasure!

  11. What is the manufacturer, make and model of the original valve? knowing that if someone, or i can get a hold of the original, a scan/redesign can be made easily by anyone with some parametric CAD modeling experience. The gas flow theory is simple, the ratio and specific sizes are the only parameters that are missing. Also the connection and tube sizes.

  12. Anybody has the stl file? If patents are the reason of leaving people die now, that would be a bad advisement for 3M. Requesting formally by the hospital is slow in this case. Hospitals even do not know if this is an option. Lets hope we can have the stl file before it breaks out and will be late.

    I started watching This is what I can do right now.

  13. I am proficient in Solidworks, I have worked in the engineering world for a while.
    I am also an intern at a hospical in Southern California.
    I am tyring to reverse engineer this part as well.
    But I have no way of know what machine/device this is for.
    Nor do I know what the part is called.

    However, if I can get that info, I would happily reverse eningeer it.

    1. They’re going to be dead patients if they can’t get oxygen into them. It’s definitely not a perfect situation, but in case you’ve missed the news there’s a pandemic going on and hospitals are having to make do as they can.

  14. I got a sidewinder X1 ready to go. Rapid manufacturing is made for these kinds of crisis’ Just say the word

  15. Fantastic work by a brilliant team!

    We started an open source hardware project to help close the gap in ventilator machines for the COVID-19 crisis.
    Please share this and join the effort.

  16. Why are all the tubes closed? A 3d printer does not need to do that. That looks more like a mold process.

  17. I design a lot of medical devices and it is certainly the case that some parts can be produced on industrial additive machines using approved materials. But the issue and danger here is that you cannot just “upload a file” and print it. Anything that goes into a medical device has to be tested and approved, along with the process used to develop it. Of course in exceptional circumstances, to some extent, anything goes. In this particular case, it sounds like the Doctors brought in someone who knew what they were doing (and the associated risks) and the solution they came up with may have incorporated tweaks to the basic design to allow for the new manufacturing process. This is to be applauded.
    But the danger now, is that as these stories go viral (no pun intended) all those involved in patient treatment must be aware that churning out parts on any old 3D printer to some file downloaded off the internet is not the solution to safety – and in fact could prove fatal to the patient and dangerous to the medic should that part not be designed properly or made using the wrong type of material (for evidence refer to the nonsense going around about ventilators now – critical equipment that comes in many different guises for particular needs). Unfortunately politicians see this as an opportunity to display their “leadership” by “mobilising” business to produce devices.
    In these cases, right now, the issue is speed and supply. By far the most effective way to achieve this is to utilise existing designs and products and assist the manufacturers of those to increase production – perhaps by relaxing approval processes for new production facilities. Creating a new design from scratch is not the solution. This is not about disruption, this is about ensureing the equipment is available and that that equipment works reliably and that the medics know how to use it without retraining.
    So start with the existing suppliers, and go from there. If they refuse to do this, as appears to be the case here, then fornulate a temporary solution (like this) then tell that OEM that they will be removed from the supply roster of that hospital or heath agency.

    1. 100% this. These 3D printed parts obviously haven’t been cleared through any authoritative body and have no CE mark.
      If a patient dies or is injured by this part, heads are going to be rolling.
      Work with suppliers needs to be happening asap, they should have no excuses.

    2. Hello Kevin, would you able to advise and or help in the design and construction of a “stop gap” ventilator for use in only the direst of circumstances, if the patient is in a grave condition. This will ease the burden of heath professionals and reduce the expected mortality rate.

    3. Complete agree that disruption is not the end goal here and there is a laundry list of reasons why the existing devices have the regulation they do. That said, I don’t want to loose sight of the doctors in areas hit the hardest having to choose between who lives and who dies.

      I can’t speak for everyone but personally I’d rather be given a CHANCE to survive with a 3D part than to be without in a time of need. Bottom line, healthcare & manufacturers that support healthcare should be given every incentive to both increase production but also engage in strategies to find solutions that exist “outside of the box”.

      The maker community as a whole is an amazing group of people dedicated to solving problems. Some of the existing initiatives in the space are really amazing e.g. OpenAPS

  18. Name and shame the medical corporation responsible for breaking supply chain but leaving people hanging and dying because of their greed. You will not remain anonymous with your corporate greed paid for by the blood of our people.

  19. Ciao from Australia!

    I have a question: How did you solve the porosity problem with 3D printed devices? Is there any leakage in service?


    1. I sealed parts dipping them in melted paraffin wax. Works great with PETG. Doesn’t work with PLA

    2. Andrew I have nothing to do with this project but I have designed parts specifically for AM that are similar to this (air and vacuum supply). I can see that some of those parts were produced on what looks like HP MJF (the grey sintered parts that are actually being used). We did a project last year on similar sized parts all produced by SLS or MJF and whilst those processes are indeed porous, for the application we used it in, there was a negligible drop in pressure through the part. Once you get over about about 3mm wall thickness the porosity of the SLS parts is largely not an issue (in many applications like this).
      Of course if it is critical them resin based processses like SLA or DLP or Carbon provide the best solution as they are inherently non porous. Carbon feature some case studies on redesigned valves for fluid or air. The benefit there is also that the smoother surface finish is less likely to trap particles. The worst case for this would be FDM which is great for proof of concept but (I think) totally unsuitable for anything like this. For anything that goes into a critical machine the parts have to be industrially produced in controlled conditions so that the parts are reliable and repeatable.

  20. Hi, my name is Maxime Desmarais-Laporte and I live in Canada. I am a student in robotics Engenering at Sherbrooke University and I am a physics technician. I also have a 3D printing company. The Pendemic is reaching us and I work on a project with doctors at CHUS (Hospital) to make a low cost ventillation système can be developpe realy quickly if we need it. We want to make it low cost and open source for all people in the world were able to build it and use it.

    Is it possible to acces to the CAD of the valve to developpe faster a solution?

    All people who want to help is welcom.


    Maxime Desmarais-Laporte

    1. Hi Jasc did you know bout the #projectopenair? they are creating an ventilator to be created locally…contact them

    2. There are many problems with trying to use 1 ventilator on more than 1 patient. The overriding concern is infection control and the elimination of cross-contamination. This is a major concern with prolonged mechanical ventilation of patients even in the absence of pandemic conditions. The second major concern is that splitting the ventilator’s tidal volume 4 ways does not guarantee that each patient receives an equal share of the tidal volume. If all 4 patients, for example, had identical lung mechanics (airway resistance, tissue resistance, lung compliance, and chest wall compliance) and the same size artificial airway, then, presumably tidal volumes would be equal. But the likelihood of that is zero. More likely the patients with higher compliance and lower airway resistance would receive greater volumes than the patients with low compliance and high resistance. The reason this is important is that it indicates that there would be little to no control over adjusting the tidal volumes and ventilatory parameters for each patient’s particular needs.

  21. Don’t forget the fastest way to get a model of some parts might be to use the hospital CT scanner to scan them. Then use free software such as Inversalius to create a 3D model of them. This can be done in a few hours.

    CT Scanner + 3D Printer = REPLICATOR

  22. Hi this is really good to know about – we are based in Northern Ireland and currently have FDM machines. We are also working with a number of other local companies who have printers. Our company is called NI 3D PRINT and we would be happy to help although it would likely be more useful to hospitals local to us. Feel free to contact us or connect us with others needing this type of assistance.

  23. Stumbled across this thread looking for ways to help in finding solutions for this crisis. I don’t have a 3D printer but if I wanted to get one that I could use to help supply things like this, which printer should I get and how steep is the learning curve?

    1. Hobbyists use printers like the Ender 3, 3 Pro, 5, Tevo Tarantula Pro or the CR 10. Beside these, I also have the Two Trees Sapphire S. They are pretty much cheap, but do require assembly and calibration before proper use. Another option would be the Prusa Mark 3, which is more expensive than the ones enumerated, but they offer support and also assembly for extra money.

      As for the learning curve, if you have patience and you love puzzles and tinkering, it’s pretty easy to get the hang of it.

  24. In the US, Trump had publically allowed all medical facilities to break whatever laws may be hampering them in stopping this virus in his ‘declaring emergency address’ the other day. So, there should be a few medical peeps out there who have modeling skills to make these. AKA design and make them anyway

  25. Based in the UK Poole, Dorset, happy to print anything related got 2 fdm printer’s I print mostly pla.

      1. Hey! This is fantastic. I’ve reached out them so we can see how best to get the word out.

    1. thank you, I think you need to ask the guys who created it. Their Facebook accounts are linked in the article. If you cannot get through let us know and we’ll reach out

      1. Hello,
        I am the owner of a 3D printing company in Greece. I can print in 3 FDM printers and 2 DLP printers if needed (of course free of charge). Please contact me as soon as possible if needed.

  26. You forgot to mention the most interesting part of the story.
    Before designing the 3d model, they called the company which produces the valves to ask for the 3d file.
    The company refused to give it to them because of patent protection. They decided to move on and modelled the piece measuring the one they had in their hands. Then they started 3d printing.

    1. Pretty shocking. As a mechanical engineer who operates many 3D printers myself, looking at the yellow part, there seems to be nothing overly special about it or really worth a patent. The venturi effect has been employed in carburettors for over 100 years, and in this case all you need are a few critical diameters for the input and output tubing and the desired ratio of gas flows and operating pressures, and you can literally design a generic version that performs the same function but looks nothing like the original (in fact it may be advisable to actually re-design the part to make it easier and more reliable to 3D-print on cheap FDM machines, since the original part geometry is optimised for injection molding).

      But yeah, sounds like the attitude of some American health company. They exist primarily to make a profit – saving lives is a secondary concern.

  27. I suggest finding the person that designed theese, and get the .STL FILE into the public, there are thousands of able and willing people that can print theese.

    1. That’s a great idea but I’m afraid there may be copyright issues. Please see comment below

          1. What kind of company are you if you are going to sue the 3D printing community legally for breaking copyrights when literally people die at this very moment that can be saved right now? There are politicians that even dare to worry about the fall of the stockmarkets than the families that lose members due to the Corona virus. There should be an international law that people could be sued if they put making money before saving lives.

          2. i will happily put my name on any business that wants to make this stuff
            why dont we make one big business and everyone works for me .
            try sue me it will be too late because i would continue to supply hospitals with equipment they need while you try take me to court

          3. Actually they were already threatened with a lawsuit by the company that originally made them. The company is charging $11,000 US for them.

        1. Dudes i need the stl file fuckun now im in sf.. 13 hospitals are running low. Fuck . Plessr help and spread the message

      1. Honestly that shouldn’t matter right now, all it takes is an anonymous person to put it on thingyverse and boom its available no matter what the file will be out in the internet and it wont be stopped

        1. Copyright only applies if you’re selling it. You can make as many copies as you want for your own use.

          1. Actually, that’s not true. Copyright applies whatever the purpose. It’s just that if you’re not making any money from it, there’s no point in suing because the only legal remedy is damages in the form of lost income or loss of reputation etc and if only you were using it, there wouldn’t be either…

    2. Before sharing, they are testing the valve at the hospital, printed with different materials.
      Then they are going to share the file and specs for printing. Requests are coming from all over italy.

      1. Please please please, keep us posted! If you have any info or other sources, please share!
        Thank you!

      2. Indeed please keep us posted. I work at 3D Systems and we would like to and are able to help in many countries. It would help to get the CAD and start printing tests on our different machines and technologies.

        1. Peter, we have three 3D Systems, NextDent printers and successfully printed the file on Friday March 20, we are prepared to assist if you in printing these if there is a customer to buy them.

    3. Totally agree!
      By not releasing the STL file into the public, for me, only means that they are using this pandemic as free publicity for their company. Nasty business…

    4. i would brake the law i would not care, if i was in a position of power with factorys at my finger tips .

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